Populações tradicionais comemoram 20 anos do decreto de criação da Reserva Extrativista (RESEX) Tapajós-Arapiuns

7 de novembro de 2018 por Samela Bonfim

Trajetória é marcada por grandes conquistas e desafios pela defesa do território, conservação do ecossistema e desenvolvimento sustentável

O Diploma legal de criação foi decretado em 06 de novembro de 1998 que definiu uma área de 647.610 hectares como pertencente a Reserva Extrativista (RESEX) Tapajós-Arapiuns. Atualmente formada por 4.168 famílias, 13 mil habitantes a região é composta por 75 comunidades das quais 26 são aldeias indígenas. É uma das RESEXs mais populosas do país.

A Resex foi a primeira unidade de conservação extrativista criada no Estado do Pará e é motivo de orgulho para os moradores que atuam na defesa do território. O presidente da Organização das Associações e Moradores da Reserva Extrativista Tapajós Arapiuns – Tapajoara, Dinael Cardoso, destacou a importância da comemoração das duas décadas: – “Foi uma luta bem grande dos moradores da Resex… E aqui agradecemos a todas as instituições que trabalham conosco”. 

Cardoso enfatizou a necessidade de agradecer as instituições parceiras que contribuíram para a criação da reserva e a elaboração de projetos que contribuem com a evolução das comunidades: “Dentro da unidade nós conquistamos várias coisas. Somos referência em projetos sustentáveis. São 20 anos voltados para o desenvolvimento econômico e social dos moradores da Resex” – comemora.

Desafios

O primeiro desafio das comunidades foi vencido após a conquista do território que vinha sendo ocupado por processos de exploração predatória da madeira e minérios, sem o consentimento das comunidades que viviam e manejavam historicamente o território, e sem que os benefícios das atividades econômicas chegassem para os moradores.

Após a demarcação da área, as comunidades passaram a ter amparo legal para nela, viver e produzir, respeitando seu modo de vida tradicional, mas também podendo manejar os recursos naturais de forma sustentável. E é neste quesito que está um dos maiores desafios, pois são muitos os recursos naturais disponíveis, mas ainda são poucas as alternativas de geração de renda e acesso à serviços básicos, por isso a população necessita de muitas melhorias para continuar a reprodução de sua cultura com melhor qualidade de vida.

Estudos para o manejo florestal madeireiro comunitário, previstos no Plano de Manejo da Unidade estão em andamento, mas ainda não se chegou aum consenso entre os moradores, que precisam de muitas discussões e organização. Outras iniciativas, como por exemplo as incentivadas Projeto Saúde e Alegria, já vem sendo realizados na Resex promovendo atividades econômicas sustentáveis  como o ecoturismo de base comunitária, a cadeia produtiva das mudas e sementes florestais e a meliponicultura.  

Entre outros desafios está o acesso à energia elétrica. Os moradores lutam pela chegada da energia através do Programa Luz Para Todos do Governo Federal. O acesso à energia é essencial para os moradores melhorarem sua qualidade de vida, bem como para que possam desenvolver atividades econômicas. Outra necessidade é quanto a resposta da publicação no Diário Oficial da União do Acordo de Pesca que regulamenta a pesca na região da Flona e Resex.

Sobre a reserva

Localizada nos Municípios de Santarém e Aveiro, ao oeste do Estado do Pará 34% dos 647.610 hectares de sua área, estão localizados no município de Aveiro/PA e 66% (453.327 ha), no município de Santarém/PA. A RESEX tem seus limites marcados pelos rios Arapiuns, Maró e Mentai; pelas glebas Mamuru e Nova Olinda e pelo Projeto de Assentamento Agroextrativista (PAE) Lago Grande. Já o limite Leste é dado pelo rio Tapajós. O nome da Unidade de Conservação se deve a sua localização entre os rios Tapajós e Arapiuns. Na parte Norte da RESEX, esses dois rios se encontram na frente da cidade de Santarém. O acesso à reserva é realizado por via fluvial. Saindo da cidade de Santarém pelo rio Tapajós, o trajeto é de cerca de duas horas de lancha até a comunidade mais próxima (52 Km), a Vila Franca. Partindo da cidade de Itaituba, também pelo rio Tapajós, são cerca de quatro horas de lancha até a comunidade mais próxima, no extremo Sul da RESEX, a comunidade de Escrivão, a 112 Km.

Inserida na grande bacia amazônica contém 13 bacias principais, totalizando uma área de 6.760,6 km², e com 4.231 km de drenagem. Com o avanço do uso do solo, principalmente nas margens de rios e igarapés, algumas bacias da RESEX estão sofrendo mais interferência. Isso pode acarretar impactos nos corpos hídricos, tais como assoreamento e eutrofização (mudanças na qualidade da água). Até o ano de 2012, 513,61 km² da RESEX estavam antropizados (transformação que exerce o ser humano sobre o meio ambiente). Os principais rios da RESEX são os rios Tapajós, que banha toda porção Leste da Unidade, e o rio Arapiuns que perfaz a porção Norte da RESEX. Além desses, podemos citar: rio Maró, que limita a parte Noroeste da UC; rio Aruã, da bacia do rio Arapiuns, localizado no entorno da RESEX; rio Inambú; rio São Pedro; igarapés Amorim, Mentai e Nambu que também são importantes cursos d’água para navegação, fundamentais para deslocamento e acesso às comunidades. A região do rio Tapajós apresenta vários lagos, alguns acessíveis para embarcação apenas no período da cheia dos rios, de janeiro a agosto, outros acessíveis durante todo o ano. Os principais lagos na região são: Capixauã, Amorim, Uquena e Muratuba.

Aprofunde o conhecimento

Para detalhes e curiosidades sobre a trajetória dos moradores da Resex acesso ao almanaque da Reserva Extrativista Tapajós-Arapiuns

 

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